Graduated from UWIST (Cardiff) with a degree in BSc Applied Biology, and a PhD from the University of Aston (Birmingham) investigating alternatives to animal experimentation. After a gratuitous fun year in Australia he did postdocs in the Departments of Chemistry/Microbiology at The University of Bristol, and The Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford. Subsequently he was appointed as a Lecturer in The Department of Paediatrics at Imperial College and through promotions became a Professor in Paediatric Infectious Diseases. He has served on scientific meeting committees for the Society of General Microbiology (now the Microbiology Society), and a previous Chair of the Meningitis UK Scientific and Medical Advisory Panel. Currently, he is a member of BBSRC Committee A (Animal Sciences), the NC3Rs Grant Assessment Panel, and the Scientific Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification (SACGM).