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Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection: the Badger Model As a Paradigm for Understanding Tuberculosis in Animals

Tuberculosis in animals is caused principally by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and the potential for transmission of infection to humans is often the fundamental driver for surveillance of disease in livestock and wild animals. However, with such a vast array of species susceptible to infection, it is often extremely difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of infection––a key component of the epidemiology in all affected species.

Metazoan Parasite Vaccines: Present Status and Future Prospects

Eukaryotic parasites and pathogens continue to cause some of the most detrimental and difficult to treat diseases (or disease states) in both humans and animals, while also continuously expanding into non-endemic countries. Combined with the ever growing number of reports on drug-resistance and the lack of effective treatment programs for many metazoan diseases, the impact that these organisms will have on quality of life remain a global challenge. Vaccination as an effective prophylactic treatment has been demonstrated for well over 200 years for bacterial and viral diseases.

Correlates of protective immunity for fish vaccines

Vaccination is one of the most effective disease control strategies that has contributed to the significant reduction of disease outbreaks and antibiotics usage in salmonid aquaculture. To date, licensing of fish vaccines is to a limited extent based on in vitro correlates of protection, as done for many mammalian vaccines. This is because the immunological mechanisms of vaccine protection have not been clearly elucidated for most fish vaccines.

The History of In Vivo Tuberculin Testing in Bovines: Tuberculosis, a “One Health” Issue

Tuberculosis (TB) is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB.

Map Existing Initiatives in STAR-IDAZ IRC Working Group Fields

This document is produced by the Secretariat of the STAR-IDAZ International Research Consortium on Animal Health (SIRCAH) for the task: T3.3.2 - Map existing initiatives in Working Group (WG) fields with input from IRC members and stakeholders. The aim is to gather and compile the documents produced by IRC members, research consortia, learned societies and other relevant stakeholders relating to existing initiatives in the fields of the WGs. The lists will be fed into the working groups and disseminated publicly via the STAR-IDAZ databases.

 

 

 

Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective.

BACKGROUND:

Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Bovine Tuberculosis in Britain and Ireland – A Perfect Storm? the Confluence of Potential Ecological and Epidemiological Impediments to Controlling a Chronic Infectious Disease

Successful eradication schemes for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) have been implemented in a number of European and other countries over the last 50 years. However, the islands of Britain and Ireland remain a significant aberration to this trend, with the recent exception of Scotland. Why have eradication schemes failed within these countries, while apparently similar programs have been successful elsewhere?

Serological evidence of vaccination and perceptions concerning Foot-and-Mouth Disease control in cattle at the wildlife-livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

Communal livestock farming areas adjoining the Greater Kruger National Park Area within South Africa are part of the Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Protection Zone with Vaccination due to the proximity to wildlife reservoirs. FMD and its control affect the productivity of resource-poor farmers who often depend on livestock for their livelihoods.

Preclinical efficacy and immunogenicity assessment to show that a chimeric Plasmodium falciparum UB05-09 antigen could be a malaria vaccine candidate

Although it is generally agreed that an effective vaccine would greatly accelerate the control of malaria, the lone registered malaria vaccine Mosquirix™ has an efficacy of 30%-60% that wanes rapidly, indicating a need for improved second-generation malaria vaccines. Previous studies suggested that immune responses to a chimeric Plasmodium falciparum antigen UB05-09 are associated with immune protection against malaria. Herein, the preclinical efficacy and immunogenicity of UB05-09 are tested.

Operational framework for strengthening human, animal and environmental public health systems at their interface

Public health systems have critical and clear relevance to the World Bank’s twin goals of poverty eradication and boosting shared prosperity. In particular, they are impacted by, and must respond to,significant threats at human-animal-environment interface. Most obvious are the diseases shared between humans and animals (“zoonotic” diseases), which comprise more than 60 percent of known human infectious pathogens; but also aspects of vector-borne disease, food and water safety and security, and antimicrobial resistance.

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