Mucosal vaccines and technology

28 May 2019
A. Miquel‐Clopés E. G. Bentley J. P. Stewart S. R. Carding

There is an urgent and unmet need to develop effective vaccines to reduce the global burden of infectious disease in both animals and humans, and in particular for the majority of pathogens that infect via mucosal sites. Here we summarise the impediments to developing mucosal vaccines and review the new and emerging technologies aimed at overcoming the lack of effective vaccine delivery systems that is the major obstacle to developing new mucosal vaccines.