Adjuvant effect of saponin in an oil-based monovalent (serotype O) foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine on the antibody response in guinea pigs and cattle
To enhance the potency of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, saponin was included in the vaccine formula. In this study, the combined effect of Montanide ISA 50 and saponin was evaluated. Two experiments were performed in guinea pigs and one in cattle to determine the optimal antigen and saponin doses. Only serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease virus (O/PanAsia-2 of ME-SA topotype) was employed in preparation of the monovalent vaccine. All animals were immunized twice with a four-week interval, except for the negative controls. Blood was collected 10 days after the second booster, and the immune response was evaluated using a serum neutralization test. Oil-based FMD vaccines containing saponin induced higher neutralizing antibody levels than formulations lacking saponin. The addition of saponin to formulations with low antigen payload (2.5 µg of inactivated whole virus particles [146S particles] per dose) gave significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels (p < 0.005) than 5 µg of 146S without saponin, suggesting that it can be used to improve FMD vaccine potency in susceptible animals. No adverse effects were observed in vaccinated cattle or guinea pigs.