Applications of platform technologies in veterinary vaccinology and the benefits for one health
The animal-human interface has played a central role in advances made in vaccinology for the past two centuries. Many traditional veterinary vaccines were developed by growing, attenuating, inactivating and fractioning the pathogen of interest. While such approaches have been very successful, we have reached a point where they have largely been exhausted and alternative approaches are required. Furthermore, although subunit vaccines have enhanced safety profiles and created opportunities for combined discrimination between vaccinated and infected animal (DIVA) approaches, their functionality has largely been limited to diseases that can be controlled by humoral immunity until very recently. We now have a new generation of adjuvants and delivery systems that can elicit CD4 + T cells and/or CD8 + T cell responses in addition to high-titre antibody responses. We review the current vaccine platform technologies, describe their roles in veterinary vaccinology and discuss how knowledge of their mode of action allows informed decisions on their deployment with wider benefits for One Health.