Characterization, pathogenicity and protective efficacy of a cell culture-derived porcine deltacoronavirus
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in neonatal piglets, resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry. However, there is currently little information on vaccine studies and commercially available vaccines for PDCoV. Hence, herein, a PDCoV strain, CH/XJYN/2016, was successfully isolated and serially propagated in vitro, and its biological characteristics were determined. Compared to that of previously reported and recently isolated PDCoV strains from China and the United States, the S gene of the CH/XJYN/2016 strain contains novel mutations. Infection studies revealed that CH/XJYN/2016 is pathogenic to suckling piglets and conventional weaned pigs. In addition, the median pig diarrhea dose (PDD) of PDCoV in conventional weaned pigs was determined (2.0 logPDD/3 mL). Furthermore, an inactivated cell-adapted CH/XJYN/2016-based vaccine candidate was developed with different adjuvants. Compared with nonvaccinated pigs, conventional weaned pigs given the inactivated vaccine developed a potent humoral immune response and showed no clinical signs or viral shedding after challenge, indicating a potent protective effect of the vaccine against PDCoV infection. Therefore, the PDCoV vaccine developed in this study is a promising vaccine candidate that can be used for the control of PDCoV infection in pigs.