Combined immunization with inactivated vaccine reduces the dose of live B. abortus A19 vaccine
Brucella spp. is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for brucellosis in humans and animals. Brucella abortus A19 strain is a widespread vaccine in China. However, it has a drawback of residual virulence in animals and humans.
In this study, the BALB/c mice were inoculated with either 100 μL PBS(control group, C group), 109 CFU/mL inactivated B. abortus A19 strain (I group), 105 CFU/mL (low-dose group, L group) 106 CFU/mL live B. abortus A19 strain (high-dose group, H group), or 105 CFU/mL live B. abortus A19 strain combined with 109 CFU/mL inactivated B. abortus A19 strain (LI group). Mice were challenged with B. abortus strain 2308 at 7 week post vaccination. Subsequently, the immune and protective efficacy of the vaccines were evaluated by measuring splenic bacterial burden, spleen weight, serum IgG, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) percentage of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of mice via bacterial isolation, weighing, ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively.
The splenic bacterial burden and spleen weight of the mice in group LI were mostly equivalent to the mice of group H. Moreover, Brucella-specific serum IgG, IFN-γ, IL-4, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of the LI group mice were similar to those of the H group. In the subsequent challenge test, both vaccines conferred protective immunity to wild-type (WT) 2308 strain. In addition, the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in these mice were similar to those of the mice in the H group.
Combined immunization with low dose live vaccine and inactivated vaccine allowed to reduce the live B. abortus A19 vaccine, dose with an equivalent protection of the high-dose live vaccine.