Commercial vaccines used in poultry, cattle, and aquaculture: a multidirectional comparison.

03 Jan 2024
Domínguez-Odio A, Rodríguez Martínez E, Cala Delgado DL

Veterinary vaccines represent a remarkable stride in enhancing animal survival and welfare. However, their benefits were not uniformly accessible to all species from the outset. In 1979 and 1998, avian and bovine species emerged as pioneers of immunization, particularly targeting Pasteurella multocida and Bacillus antracis respectively. In contrast, fish gained immunization in 1949 against Aeromonas salmonicida. Commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri and Aliivibrio salmonicida were not available for fish until 1976.

While the prevention of specific pathogens in terrestrial and aquatic animals occurred at different times, its achievement uniformly facilitated intensive breeding for productive purposes. Consequently, the value of these species as a source of food and income increased for millions of people worldwide. The ability to pre-empt numerous infectious diseases not only bolstered profitability but also fostered safe food trade, mitigated animal suffering, reduced zoonotic infection transmission, minimized antibiotic usage, and most importantly, avoided large-scale famines across all instances.

Currently, maintaining or expanding on these successes poses a significant challenge for the global biopharmaceutical industry. Meeting the high demand for vaccines tailored to the specificities of each pathogen and species requires robust production systems capable of producing in a stable and high yielding manner. There are several technological platforms (traditional or modern) available for this purpose, as well as different options for obtaining effective, stable, and safe vaccines. The World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) establishes international standards for vaccines in the Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial and aquatic animals (mammals, birds, bees, and fish). The indications issued are written by international experts and then sent for review by scientific peers and for comments by all WOAH member countries, thus achieving consensus at the time of their adoption.

However, these recommendations are not sufficient to develop new vaccines; they need to be expanded with updated information on the scientific and technological advances obtained in vaccinology for each animal species. Unfortunately, this knowledge, being dispersed in different fields of science is not always visible to producers, which is why it is difficult for them to make the best decisions with a minimal risks of failure, quickly enter the market, and optimally take advantage of all available resources. Based on these facts, an investigation was conducted with the aim of comparing global trends in the manufacture and marketing of avian, bovine, and fish vaccines.