Developing Next-Generation Live Attenuated Vaccines for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Using Reverse Genetic Techniques.

19 May 2024
Yu R, Dong S, Chen B, Si F, Li C
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the etiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), a highly contagious digestive disease in pigs and especially in neonatal piglets, in which a mortality rate of up to 100% will be induced. Immunizing pregnant sows remains the most promising and effective strategy for protecting their neonatal offspring from PEDV. Although half a century has passed since its first report in Europe and several prophylactic vaccines (inactivated or live attenuated) have been developed, PED still poses a significant economic concern to the swine industry worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel vaccines in clinical practice, especially live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) that can induce a strong protective lactogenic immune response in pregnant sows. Reverse genetic techniques provide a robust tool for virological research from the function of viral proteins to the generation of rationally designed vaccines. In this review, after systematically summarizing the research progress on virulence-related viral proteins, we reviewed reverse genetics techniques for PEDV and their application in the development of PED LAVs. Then, we probed into the potential methods for generating safe, effective, and genetically stable PED LAV candidates, aiming to provide new ideas for the rational design of PED LAVs.