Development of an inactivated combined vaccine for protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease and bluetongue viruses
Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and Bluetongue (BT) are the main ruminants viral vector-borne diseases. LSD is endemic in Africa and has recently emerged in Europe and central Asia as a major threat to cattle industry. BT caused great economic damage in Europe during the last decade with a continuous spread to other countries. To control these diseases, vaccination is the only economically viable tool. For LSD, only live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are commercially available, whilst for BT both LAVs and inactivated vaccines are available with a limited number of serotypes. In this study, we developed an inactivated, oil adjuvanted bivalent vaccine against both diseases based on LSDV Neethling strain and BTV4. The vaccine was tested for safety and immunogenicity on cattle during a one-year period. Post-vaccination monitoring was carried out by VNT and ELISA. The vaccine was completely safe and elicited high neutralizing antibodies starting from the first week following the second injection up to one year. Furthermore, a significant correlation (R = 0.9040) was observed when comparing VNT and competitive ELISA in BTV4 serological response. Following BTV4 challenge, none of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle were registered clinical signs, however vaccinated cattle showed full protection from viraemia. In summary, this study highlights the effectiveness of this combined vaccine as a promising solution for both LSD and BT control. It also puts an emphasis on the need for the development of other multivalent inactivated vaccines, which could be greatly beneficial for improving vaccination coverage in endemic countries and prophylaxis of vector-borne diseases.