Edwardsiella ictaluri: A systemic review and future perspectives on disease management

28 Feb 2022
Machimbirike VI, Crumlish M, Dong HT, Santander J, Khunrae P and Rattanarojpong T

Edwardsiella ictaluri, a non-zoonotic Gram-negative bacterium, has been known to science for more than 4 decades. It was reported for the first time in 1979 in Ictalurus punctatus in the USA and later in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Asia. Even though catfish species are more susceptible to E. ictaluri, other fish species are also affected, and up to 44 fish species in four continents are known to be susceptible. The diseases caused by E. ictaluri are known as enteric septicaemia of catfish (ESC) in channel catfish, bacillary necrosis of pangasius (BNP) in striped catfish, red head disease in yellow catfish and edwardsiellosis in tilapia. Outbreaks caused by E. ictaluri can cause up to 100% mortality resulting in substantive economic losses to the industry, threatening food security and undermining sustainability. Although efforts have been made to prevent and control this pathogen using vaccines, antibiotics, disease resistance selective breeding, functional feed ingredients, prebiotics and probiotics, and biosecurity measures, E. ictaluri is still causing health issues in different countries. Here, we provided with a comprehensive review that addressed the current knowledge of E. ictaluri bacteriological characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and management. Furthermore, we also provided the future perspectives based on advanced technologies and biosecurity management in aquaculture to assist pathogen control and/or eradication.