Effect of bivalent vaccines against Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies achromogenes on health and survival of turbot
The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of an oil-based bivalent autogenous vaccine and the commercial vaccine AlphaJect 3000 (Pharmaq AS) to prevent atypical furunculosis and vibriosis in turbot was analyzed. The effect of both vaccines on health parameters and survival of fish after challenge with V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes was tested. The autogenous vaccine conferred high levels of protection and long-lasting immunity against both pathogens with a single dose. However, severe side effects were observed in turbot injected with this autovaccine and minor negative effects with the AlphaJect 3000 vaccine and the adjuvant Montanide or Eolane. All vaccinated fish showed remarkable antibody agglutination titers, higher than those of control fish, which were maintained 160 d after vaccination. In conclusion, the autogenous bivalent vaccine induces long-lasting protection against atypical furunculosis and vibriosis in turbot, after administration of a single dose, at the cost of high side effects in fish. Therefore, the development of new vaccines should focus on autovaccines and the use of liquid paraffin adjuvants that increase protection with reduced or no side effects.