Effectiveness of a proteoliposome-based vaccine against salmonid rickettsial septicaemia in Oncorhynchus mykiss

23 Aug 2021
Caruffo M, Vidal S, Santis L, Siel D, Pérez O, Huenchullan PR and Sáenz L

Salmonid rickettsial septicaemia (SRS) is a contagious disease caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, an intracellular bacterium. SRS causes an estimated economic loss of 0 million USD to the Chilean industry annually. Vaccination and antibiotic therapy are the primary prophylactic and control measures used against SRS. Unfortunately, commercially available SRS vaccines have not been shown to have a significant effect on reducing mortality. Most vaccines contain whole inactivated bacteria which results in decreased efficacy due to the limited ability of the vaccine to evoke a cellular mediated immune response that can eliminate the pathogen or infected cells. In addition, SRS vaccine efficacy has been evaluated primarily with Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon). Vaccine studies using Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are scarce, despite SRS being the leading cause of infectious death for this species. In this study, we evaluate an injectable vaccine based on P. salmonis proteoliposome; describing the vaccine security profile, capacity to induce specific anti-P. salmonis IgM and gene expression of immune markers related to T CD8 cell-mediated immunity. Efficacy was determined by experimental challenge with P. salmonis intraperitoneally. Our findings indicate that a P. salmonis proteoliposome-based vaccine is able to protect O. mykiss against challenge with a P. salmonis Chilean isolate and causes a specific antibody response. The transcriptional profile suggests that the vaccine is capable of inducing cellular immunity. This study provides new insights into O. mykiss protection and the immune response induced by a P. salmonis proteoliposome-based vaccine.