Evaluation of immunogenicity and cross-reactive responses of  vaccines prepared from two chimeric serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses in pigs and cattle

08 Jul 2022
Li P, Huang S, Zha J, Sun P, Li D, Bao H, Cao Y, Bai X, Fu Y, Ma X, Li K, Yuan H, Zhang J, Zhao Z, Wang J, Zhang K, Chen Y, Zhang Q, Qi S, Liu Z and Lu Z

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains a very serious barrier to agricultural development and the international trade of animals and animal products. Recently, serotype O has been the most prevalent FMDV serotype in China, and it has evolved into four different lineages: O/SEA/Mya-98, O/ME-SA/PanAsia, O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 and O/Cathay. PanAsia-2, belonging to the O/ME-SA topotype, is prevalent in neighbouring countries and poses the risk of cross-border spread in China. This study aimed to develop a promising vaccine candidate strain that can not only provide the best protection against all serotype O FMDVs circulating in China but also be used as an emergency vaccine for the prevention and control of transboundary incursion of PanAsia-2. Here, two chimeric FMDVs (rHN/TURVP1 and rHN/NXVP1) featuring substitution of VP1 genes of the O/TUR/5/2009 vaccine strain (PanAsia-2) and O/NXYCh/CHA/2018 epidemic strain (Mya98) were constructed and evaluated. The biological properties of the two chimeric FMDVs were similar to those of the wild-type (wt) virus despite slight differences in plaque sizes observed in BHK-21 cells. The structural protein-specific antibody titres induced by the rHN/TURVP1 and wt virus vaccines in pigs and cows were higher than those induced by the rHN/NXVP1 vaccine at 28-56 dpv. The vaccines prepared from the two chimeric viruses and wt virus all induced the production of protective cross-neutralizing antibodies against the viruses of the Mya-98, PanAsia and Ind-2001 lineages in pigs and cattle at 28 dpv; however, only the animals vaccinated with the rHN/TURVP1 vaccine produced a protective immune response to the field isolate of the Cathay lineage at 28 dpv, whereas the animals receiving the wt virus and the rHN/NXVP1 vaccines did not, although the wt virus and O/GXCX/CHA/2018 both belong to the Cathay topotype. This study will provide very useful information to help develop a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of serotype O FMD in China.