Evaluation of mucoadhesive property and the effect of Boswellia carteri gum on intranasal vaccination against small ruminant morbillivirus infection (PPR)
A study was conducted to evaluate mucoadhesive property and immunomodulatory effect of phytogenic gums from and on intranasal Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination in goats and sheep in an ex-vivo and in-vivo situations. Plant gums were purified, dried and compressed into 500gm tablets. Modified shear stress measurement technique was used on freshly excised trachea and intestine tissues of goat to measure peak adhesion time. Forty eight animals (24 goats and 24 sheep) were divided into eight groups (of 3 goats and 3 sheep) and immunized intranasally with gum-vaccine combinations in two ratios (1:1, 1:2). Antibody against PPR virus was measured on day 14, 28, 42 and 56 post vaccination using H-based PPR bELISA. The peak adhesion time of the different gums was transient. PPR virus antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep but not in unvaccinated control. The best percentage inhibition was recorded for Boswellia carteri-vaccine combination group at a ratio of 1:1. Administration of -PPR vaccine combination through intranasal or subcutaneous route, elicited similar antibody titre, implying that the intranasal route may be used as a non-invasive alternative delivery in PPR vaccination of small ruminants.