Evaluation of safety and efficacy of an inactivated marker vaccine against bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Recent studies have explored the seropositivity of bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in water buffaloes, suggesting the urgency for developing strategies to eradicate the virus involving both cattle and water buffaloes. However, in Europe, the glycoprotein E (gE) deleted marker vaccines against BoHV-1 are commercially available only for the cattle industry. This study, for the first time, evaluated the safety and efficacy of a commercial inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccine in water buffalo. Five animals devoid of BoHV-1-neutralizing antibodies were vaccinated via intramuscular route. Five additional animals served as an unvaccinated control group. Sixty days after the first immunization, all animals were experimentally infected with a virulent BoHV-1via intranasal route. A detectable BoHV-1-humoral immune response was observed in the vaccinated group on post-vaccination day 30, whereas the antibodies appeared on post-challenge day 10 in the control group. Moreover, the vaccinated animals neither show viral shedding nor clinical signs compared to the control upon challenge. However, post-challenge, the BoHV-1-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were significantly more increased in vaccinated animals than the control animals. Overall, the present study provides evidence of both the safety and efficacy of an inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccine against BoHV-1 in water buffaloes.