Evaluation of safety and efficacy of an inactivated marker vaccine against bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

07 Apr 2021
Petrini S, Martucciello A, Grandoni F, De Matteis G, Cappelli G, Giammarioli M, Scoccia E, Grassi C, Righi C, Fusco G, Galiero G, Pela M, De Mia GM and De Carlo E

Recent studies have explored the seropositivity of bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) in water buffaloes, suggesting the urgency for developing strategies to eradicate the virus involving both cattle and water buffaloes. However, in Europe, the glycoprotein E (gE) deleted marker vaccines against BoHV-1 are commercially available only for the cattle industry. This study, for the first time, evaluated the safety and efficacy of a commercial inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccine in water buffalo. Five animals devoid of BoHV-1-neutralizing antibodies were vaccinated via intramuscular route. Five additional animals served as an unvaccinated control group. Sixty days after the first immunization, all animals were experimentally infected with a virulent BoHV-1via intranasal route. A detectable BoHV-1-humoral immune response was observed in the vaccinated group on post-vaccination day 30, whereas the antibodies appeared on post-challenge day 10 in the control group. Moreover, the vaccinated animals neither show viral shedding nor clinical signs compared to the control upon challenge. However, post-challenge, the BoHV-1-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were significantly more increased in vaccinated animals than the control animals. Overall, the present study provides evidence of both the safety and efficacy of an inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccine against BoHV-1 in water buffaloes.