Gendered barriers and opportunities for women smallholder farmers in the contagious caprine pleuropneumonia vaccine value chain in Kenya
Most rural women smallholder farmers in Kenya generate income from the sale of small ruminant animals. However, diseases such as contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) prevent them from optimizing earnings. A crucial aspect for the control of CCPP is vaccination. In Kenya, CCPP vaccines are distributed through a government delivery mechanism. This study examines gaps and barriers that prevent women smallholder farmers from accessing CCPP vaccines. Qualitative data collection tools used were focus groups discussions, focus meals, jar voices and key informant interviews. Using outcome mapping (OM) methodology, critical partners and stakeholders in the CCPP vaccine value chain (CCPP-VVC) were identified to be the manufacturers, importers, distributors, agrovets, public and private veterinarians, local leaders, and farmers. Respondents highlighted the barriers to be limited access to vaccines due to cold chain problems, inadequate and late delivery of services, lack of information and training on vaccines, and financial constraints. Identified opportunities that can support women's engagement in the CCPP-VVC are the Kenya Governments two-third gender rule, which requires that not more than two thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender, and positive community perception of female veterinarians. We conclude that more resources and training should be made available to women farmers, and that gender perspectives on policy development related to livestock production and disease prevention are urgently needed to improve livestock productivity and increase agency for women.