Immune escape of avian oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus and antagonistic host immune responses.

15 Jun 2024
Zhu ZJ, Teng M, Liu Y, Chen FJ, Yao Y, Li EZ, Luo J
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly pathogenic and oncogenic alpha herpesvirus that causes Marek's disease (MD), which is one of the most important immunosuppressive and rapid-onset neoplastic diseases in poultry. The onset of MD lymphomas and other clinical diseases can be efficiently prevented by vaccination; these vaccines are heralded as the first demonstration of a successful vaccination strategy against a cancer. However, the persistent evolution of epidemic MDV strains towards greater virulence has recently resulted in frequent outbreaks of MD in vaccinated chicken flocks worldwide. Herein, we provide an overall review focusing on the discovery and identification of the strategies by which MDV evades host immunity and attacks the immune system. We have also highlighted the decrease in the immune efficacy of current MD vaccines. The prospects, strategies and new techniques for the development of efficient MD vaccines, together with the possibilities of antiviral therapy in MD, are also discussed.