Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of seasonal human live attenuated cold-adapted influenza virus vaccine in pigs.
Influenza A virus infection is a global health threat to livestock and humans, causing substantial mortality and morbidity. As both pigs and humans are readily infected with influenza viruses of similar subtype, the pig is a robust and appropriate model for investigating swine and human disease. We evaluated the efficacy of the human cold-adapted 2017-2018 quadrivalent seasonal LAIV in pigs against H1N1pdm09 challenge. LAIV immunized animals showed significantly reduced viral load in nasal swabs. There was limited replication of the H1N1 component of the vaccine in the nose, a limited response to H1N1 in the lung lymph nodes and a low H1N1 serum neutralizing titer. In contrast there was better replication of the H3N2 component of the LAIV, accompanied by a stronger response to H3N2 in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN). Our data demonstrates that a single administration of human quadrivalent LAIV shows limited replication in the nose and induces detectable responses to the H1N1 and H3N2 components. These data suggest that pigs may be a useful model for assessing LAIV against influenza A viruses.