Importance of brucellosis control programs of livestock on the improvement of one health
Brucellosis not only represents an important health restraint on livestock but also causes high economic losses in many developing countries worldwide. Despite considerable efforts made for the control of brucellosis, the disease is still spreading in many regions (such as the Middle East) where it represents one of the most important health hazards impacting both animals and humans. The present review aims to investigate the efficacy of veterinary control programs regarding brucellosis, with a special focus on current prevention, control, and eradication approaches. The reasons for unsuccessful control programs such as the absence of highly effective vaccines and non-certified bulls are also debated, to understand why the prevalence of brucellosis in livestock is not decreasing in many areas despite considerable efforts taken to date. The importance of governmental and regional investment in brucellosis control remains one of the main limiting factors owing to the limited budget allocated to tackle this disease. In this context, one health concept has generated novel comprehensive approaches with multiple economic implications across the livestock industry and public health. However, the implementation of such global preventive strategies appears to be a key issue for many endemic and low-income countries. According to the collected data, epidemiological contexts including management and trade systems along with well-defined agro-ecological zones should be evaluated in brucellosis endemic countries to improve milk production and to enhance the sustainability of the livestock sector at both national and regional levels.