Investigation of post vaccination reactions of two live attenuated vaccines against lumpy skin disease of cattle
Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. The only method for successful control is early diagnosis and efficient vaccination. Adverse effects of vaccination such as local inflammation at the injection site and localized or generalized skin lesions in some vaccinated animals have been reported with live vaccines. The aim of this work was to compare the safety of two lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccine strains, Kenyan (Kn) Sheep and Goat Pox (KSGP O-240) and LSDV Neethling (Nt) strain, and to determine the etiology of the post-vaccination (pv) reactions observed in cattle. Experimental cattle were vaccinated under controlled conditions with Nt- and KSGP O-240-based vaccines, using two different doses, and animals were observed for 3 months for any adverse reactions. Three out of 45 cattle vaccinated with LSDV Nt strain (6.7%) and three out of 24 cattle vaccinated with Kn strain (12.5%) presented LSD-like skin nodules, providing evidence that the post-vaccination lesions may not be strain-dependent. Lesions appeared 1-3 weeks after vaccination and were localized in the neck or covering the whole body. Animals recovered after 3 weeks. There is a positive correlation between the vaccine dose and the appearance of skin lesions in vaccinated animals; at the 105 dose, 12% of the animals reacted versus 3.7% at the 104 dose. Both strains induced solid immunity when protection was measured by neutralizing antibody seroconversion.