Long term immunity against peste des petits ruminants mediated by a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats. Conventional live vaccines have been successfully used in endemic countries however, there are not completely safe and not allowing differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA). In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the hemagglutinin of PPRV (NDV-PPRVH) was evaluated on small ruminants by serology response in sheep and goats, experimental infection in goats and immunity duration in sheep. The NDV-PPRVH vaccine injected twice at 28 days' interval, provided full protection against challenge with a virulent PPR strain in the most sensitive species and induced significant neutralizing antibodies. Immunological response in goats was slightly higher than sheep and the vaccine injected at 108.0 50 % egg infective dose/mL allowed anti-PPRV antibodies that lasted at least 12 months as shown by antibody response monitoring in sheep. The NDV vector presented a limited replication in the host and vaccinated animals remained negative when tested by cELISA based on PPRV nucleoprotein allowing DIVA. This recombinant vaccine appears to be a promising candidate in a free at risk countries and may be an important component of the global strategy for PPR eradication.