Oral delivery of pVAX-OMP and pVAX-hly DNA vaccine using chitosan-tripolyphosphate (Cs-TPP) nanoparticles in Rohu, (Labeo rohita) for protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

01 Aug 2021
Thirumalaikumar E, Lelin C, Sathishkumar R, Vimal S, Anand SB, Babu MM, Citarasu T
The present study examines the effectiveness of DNA vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila through oral route using chitosan-tripolyphosphate (Cs-TPP) nanoparticles encapsulation. The virulent gene of outer membrane protein (OMP) and hemolysin (hly) related to pathogenicity of A. hydrophila was used to construct a DNA vaccine using pVAX1, and the construct was named as pVAX-OMP and pVAX-hly DNA vaccines. The pVAX-OMP and pVAX-hly DNA vaccines were encapsulated by Cs-TPP nanoparticles and size measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The encapsulation efficiency of Cs-TPP nanoparticles was found to be 79.6% for pVAX-OMP DNA and 82.3% for pVAX-hly DNA binding with Cs-TPP nanoparticles. The stability and invitro release profile of plasmid DNA was also determined after encapsulation using DNase and chitosanase. DNA vaccines distribution in tissues was investigated in fish fed with the pVAX-OMP, pVAX-hly and pVAX-OMP+pVAX-hly encapsulated in Cs-TPP nanoparticles and confirmed by PCR and multiplex PCR. The results suggest that Cs-TPP nanoparticles encapsulated DNA vaccine delivered into fish by feeding. After oral vaccination of Labeo rohita were challenged with A. hydrophila by intraperitoneal injection. Relatively, gene expression of c- and g-type lysozyme followed by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (Interlukin-10 and Tumor Growth Factor β) was up-regulated in heart and kidney for pVAX-OMP+pVAX-hly vaccinated group. Moreover, fish fed with pVAX-OMP+pVAX-hly encapsulated in Cs-TPP nanoparticles had a significantly higher survival rate (76.2%) against A. hydrophila. This study concludes that pVAX-OMP and pVAX-hly DNA vaccines can be delivered orally using Cs-TPP nanoparticles for protection against A. hydrophilainfection.