Potential of the Escherichia coli LT(R192G/L211A) toxoid as a mucosal adjuvant for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Oral vaccines are highly demanded by aquaculture sector that requires alternatives to injectable vaccines, involving fish handling, stress-related immunosuppression and mortalities. However, most previous attempts to obtain effective oral vaccines have failed due to a restricted tolerance mechanisms in intestine, whose mucosa is at the frontline of antigen encounter and has to balance the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity in a microbe-rich environment. Thus, the search for oral adjuvants that could augment immune responses triggered by antigens allowing them to circumvent intestinal tolerance is of great relevance. The present work focuses on the adjuvant potential of the Escherichia coli LT(R192G/L211A) toxoid (dmLT). To undertake an initial screening of the potential that dmLT has as an oral adjuvant in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), we have analyzed its transcriptional effects alone or in combination with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cell line RTgutGC and gut explants. Our results show that although dmLT provoked no significant effects by itself, it increased the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial genes induced by the bacteria. In contrast, when combined with VHSV, dmLT only increased the transcription of Mx and the intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). Therefore, the protocol designed is an effective method to initially evaluate the effects of potential oral adjuvants, and points to dmLT as an effective adjuvant for oral antibacterial vaccines.