Recent advances in viral vectors in veterinary vaccinology
Viral vectored vaccines, particularly using vectors such as adenovirus, herpesvirus and poxviruses, are used widely in veterinary medicine, where this technology has been adopted much more quickly than in human medicine. There are now a large number of programmes to develop viral vector vaccine platforms for humans and very similar or identical vectors are being developed for veterinary medicine. The shared experiences of developing these new vaccine platforms across the two disciplines is accelerating progress, a striking example of the value of a 'One Health' approach. In particular, there is growing use of adenoviruses, either replicating or replication-incompetent, to create new vaccines for use in livestock or companion animals. Live replicating avian herpesvirus vectors are increasingly used as vaccines against poultry diseases.