Review on bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza - usual suspects in bovine respiratory disease - a narrative review
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine Parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV3) are closely related viruses involved in and both important pathogens within bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a major cause of morbidity with economic losses in cattle populations around the world. The two viruses share characteristics such as morphology and replication strategy with each other and with their counterparts in humans, HRSV and HPIV3. Therefore, BRSV and BPIV3 infections in cattle are considered useful animal models for HRSV and HPIV3 infections in humans.The interaction between the viruses and the different branches of the host's immune system is rather complex. Neutralizing antibodies seem to be a correlate of protection against severe disease, and cell-mediated immunity is thought to be essential for virus clearance following acute infection. On the other hand, the host's immune response considerably contributes to the tissue damage in the upper respiratory tract.BRSV and BPIV3 also have similar pathobiological and epidemiological features. Therefore, combination vaccines against both viruses are very common and a variety of traditional live attenuated and inactivated BRSV and BPIV3 vaccines are commercially available.