Rhipicephalus microplus: an overview of vaccine antigens against the cattle tick

01 Jan 2022
Pereira DFS, Ribeiro HS, Gonçalves AAM, da Silva AV, Lair DF, de Oliveira DS, Boas DFV, Conrado IDSS, Leite JC, Barata LM, Reis PCC, Mariano RMDS, Santos TAP, Coutinho DCO, Gontijo NF, Araujo RN, Galdino AS, Paes PRO, Melo MM, Nagem RAP, Dutra WO, Silveira-Lemos DD, Rodrigues DS and Giunchetti RC

Rhipicephalus microplus, popularly known as the cattle tick, is the most important tick of livestock as it is responsible for significant economic losses. The use of chemical acaricides is still the most widely used control method despite its known disadvantages. Vaccination would be a safe alternative for the control of R. microplus and holds advantages over the use of chemical acaricides as it is environmental-friendly and leaves no residues in meat or milk. Two vaccines based on the Bm86 protein were commercialized, TickGARD® and Gavac®, with varying reported efficacies in different countries. The use of other vaccines, such as Tick Vac®, Go-Tick®, and Bovimune Ixovac® have been restricted to some countries. Several other proteins have been analyzed as possible antigens for more effective vaccines against R. microplus, including peptidases, serine proteinase inhibitors, glutathione S-transferases, metalloproteases, and ribosomal proteins, with efficacies ranging from 14% to 96%. Nonetheless, more research is needed to develop safe and efficient tick vaccines, such as the evaluation of the efficacy of antigens against other tick species to verify cross-reactivity and inclusion of additional antigens to promote the blocking of the infection and spreading of tick-borne diseases. This review summarizes the discoveries of candidate antigens for R. microplus tick vaccines as well as the methods used to test their efficacy.