Selection of vaccine candidate for foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

15 Apr 2021
Cao Y, Li K, Xing X, Bao H, Huang N, Zhu G, Bai X, Sun P, Fu Y, Li P, Zhang J, Ma X, Li D, Liu Z and Lu Z

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease and one of the most economically important diseases of livestock. Vaccination is an important measure to control FMD and selection of appropriate vaccine strains is crucial. The objective of this study was to select a vaccine candidate and to evaluate the potential of a blocking ELISA for detecting neutralizing antibodies (NA-ELISA) in vaccine strain selection. Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from four representative circulating strains (FMDV O/Mya/98, SCGH/CHA/2016, O/Tibet/99, and O/XJ/CHA/2017) belonging to four lineages within three different topotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O in China, were used to vaccinate cattle (12-13 animals for each strain), sheep (12-13 animals for each strain), and pigs (10 animals for each strain). The results of immunogenicity comparison showed that O/XJ/CHA/2017 exhibited the highest immunogenicity among the four strains in pigs, cattle, and sheep both by NA-ELISA and virus neutralizing test (VNT). Cross-neutralization analysis indicated that O/XJ/CHA/2017 displayed broad antigen spectrum and was antigenically matched with other three representative strains both by NA-ELISA and VNT. In addition, A significant correlation (p < 0.0001) was observed between the NA-ELISA titers and the VNT titers for four representative strains. The results showed that O/XJ/CHA/2017 was a promising vaccine strain candidate and NA-ELISA was comparable to VNT in neutralizing antibodies detection and could be used as the reference test system for vaccine strain selection.