Simultaneous aerosol and intramuscular immunization with influenza vaccine induces powerful protective local T cell and systemic antibody immune responses in pigs
A vaccine providing both powerful Ab and cross-reactive T cell immune responses against influenza viruses would be beneficial for both humans and pigs. In this study, we evaluated i.m., aerosol (Aer), and simultaneous systemic and respiratory immunization (SIM) by both routes in Babraham pigs, using the single cycle candidate influenza vaccine S-FLU. After prime and boost immunization, pigs were challenged with H1N1pdm09 virus. i.m.-immunized pigs generated a high titer of neutralizing Abs but poor T cell responses, whereas Aer induced powerful respiratory tract T cell responses but a low titer of Abs. SIM pigs combined high Ab titers and strong local T cell responses. SIM showed the most complete suppression of virus shedding and the greatest improvement in pathology. We conclude that SIM regimes for immunization against respiratory pathogens warrant further study.