Stability of chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccines (ChAdOx1 and ChAdOx2) in liquid and lyophilised formulations
Adenovirus vectored vaccines have entered global use during the COVID-19 pandemic, and are in development for multiple other human and veterinary applications. An attraction of the technology is the suitability of the vaccines for storage at 2–8 °C for months. Widely used COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (University of Oxford/AstraZeneca) is based on a species E simian adenovirus. Species E simian serotypes have been used in a wide range of other development programs, but the stability of such vectors has not been extensively described in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we explore the stability of two candidate vaccines based on two species E serotypes: a Rift Valley fever vaccine based upon the ChAdOx1 vector (Y25 serotype) used in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and a rabies vaccine based upon a ChAdOx2 vector (AdC68 serotype). We describe each vector’s stability in liquid and lyophilised formulations using in vitro and in vivo potency measurements. Our data support the suitability of liquid formulations of these vectors for storage at 2–8 °C for up to 1 year, and potentially for nonrefrigerated storage for a brief period during last-leg distribution (perhaps 1–3 days at 20 °C—the precise definition of acceptable last-leg storage conditions would require further product-specific data). Depending upon the level of inprocess potency loss that is economically acceptable, and the level of instorage loss that is compatible with maintenance of acceptable end-of-storage potency, a previously reported lyophilised formulation may enable longer term storage at 20 °C or storage for a number of days at 30 °C.