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Toxoplasma gondii profilin does not stimulate an innate immune response through bovine or human TLR5

Toxoplasma gondii is responsible for one of the most prevalent infections in people. T. gondii profilin (TgPr) is a protein
integral to parasite movement and cellular invasion. Murine TLRs has been described to bind TgPr. Furthermore, more
recently, human TLR5 has been described to recognise recombinant TgPr, as well as bacterial flagellin. In addition to
infections in humans, T. gondii infects farm animals, but little information is available about its innate recognition. We

Use of the Human Vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin in Deer

The only vaccine ever approved for human tuberculosis was developed a century ago from an isolate of Mycobacterium bovis derived from a tuberculous cow. Initial safety and efficacy studies of an attenuated version of this isolate were conducted in cattle and other animals. In 1921 the first human, an infant, was orally dosed with this attenuated strain that came to be known as M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG); named for Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin, the two French scientists that developed the strain.

Using economic and social data to improve veterinary vaccine development: Learning lessons from human vaccinology

The drivers of vaccine development are many and varied. They include, for example, recognition of the burden of a vaccine-targeted disease, prioritisation of the multiple problems associated with a disease, consideration of the differing socio-economic situations under which vaccines are used, the influence of advocacy groups, and assessment of the feasibility of large-scale vaccine manufacture and distribution.

Recombinant Infectious Bronchitis Viruses expressing chimaeric spike glycoproteins induce 2 partial protective immunity against homologous challenge despite limited replication in vivo

Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus, which are based on a single virus serotype, 22 often induce insufficient levels of cross -protection against serotypes and two or more antigenically 23 diverse vaccines are used in attempt to provide broader protection. Amino acid differences in the 24 surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, are associated with poor cross -protection . 25 Here, homologous vaccination trials with recombinant IBVs, based on the apathogenic strain, 26 BeauR, were conducted to elucidate the role of S1 in protection.

IVVN Annual Report 2018

The International Veterinary Vaccinology Network Annual Report 2018 summarises the activities of the Network over the past year including IVVN conferences, workshops, pump-priming grants, laboratory exchange awards, and much more!

 

Vaccine Development for Nipah Virus Infection in Pigs

Nipah virus (NiV) causes a severe and often fatal neurological disease in humans. Whilst fruit bats are considered the natural reservoir, NiV also infects pigs and may cause an unapparent or mild disease. Direct pig-to-human transmission was responsible for the first and still most devastating NiV outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998–99, with nearly 300 human cases and over 100 fatalities. Pigs can therefore play a key role in the epidemiology of NiV by acting as an “amplifying” host.

Evolution of a programme to engage school students with health research and science in Kenya

Facilitating mutually-beneficial educational activities between researchers and school students is an increasingly popular way for research institutes to engage with communities who host health research, but these activities have rarely been formally examined as a community or public engagement approach in health research.

The rational simplification of a recombinant cocktail vaccine to control the parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta

Using data from five independent vaccine trials, which employed a subunit cocktail vaccine containing eight recombinant proteins to protect sheep against Teladorsagia circumcincta, a strategy was developed to simplify antigen complexity of the vaccine. A meta-analysis of data from these five trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in cumulative faecal egg count and worm burden in vaccinated sheep when compared with those which had received adjuvant only (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively).

Targeting a global health problem: Vaccine design and challenges for the control of tick-borne diseases

It has been over twenty years since the first vaccines for the control of tick infestations became commercially available. These vaccines proved their efficacy and the potential of this approach for the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs), which represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. In all these years, research in this area has produced new tick-derived and pathogen-derived candidate protective antigens.

A thermostable presentation of the live, attenuated peste des petits ruminants vaccine in use in Africa and Asia

The research objective was to develop a thermostable vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a morbilliviral disease of small ruminants targeted for eradication that is a major constraint on the livelihoods of the rural poor throughout much of Africa and Asia. Although existing PPR vaccines provide life-long immunity, they require continuous refrigeration. This limits their utility in developing countries.

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