Chitosan-adjuvanted Salmonella subunit nanoparticle vaccine for poultry delivered through drinking water and feed
Poor induction of mucosal immunity in the intestines by current Salmonella vaccines is a challenge to the poultry industry. We prepared and tested an oral deliverable Salmonella subunit vaccine containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin (F) protein loaded and F-protein surface coated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) (OMPs-F-CS NPs). The OMPs-F-CS NPs had mean particle size distribution of 514 nm, high positive charge and spherical in shape. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed the F-protein surface coated CS NPs were specifically targeted to chicken immune cells. The OMPs-F-CS NPs treatment of chicken immune cells upregulated TLRs, and Th1 and Th2 cytokines mRNA expression. Oral delivery of OMPs-F-CS NPs in birds enhanced the specific systemic IgY and mucosal IgA antibodies responses as well as reduced the challenge Salmonella load in the intestines. Thus, user friendly oral deliverable chitosan-based Salmonella vaccine for poultry is a viable alternative to current vaccines.